Summary of the Systematic Review


Cause of active motor function by passive movement

Kitagawa T,

Journal of Physical Therapy Science (2001)




It is well known that active horseback riding therapy is effective for body muscle function and psychological well-being. Initially, we wanted to introduce this horseback riding therapy into Japan. But, there are practical difficulties with regard to keeping horses in our country, especially in hospitals of urban areas. Therefore, we think the only (practical) method of reproducing horseback riding conditions is the simulator. One purpose of the development of a horseback riding simulator is to make an assessment system and to establish a training system for body-balance functions. Another purpose is for the strengthening of leg and trunk muscles through active prevention of loss of balance. Consequentially, the muscles are trained, and the simulator leads to the treatment of Lower Back Pain.


Physical Therapy 



Intervention Terminology

Horseback Riding Therapy

Study Design 

Idea Study 


1 Adult 


Age not identified 

Assessment/ Outcome measure tools

EMG measurements for abdominal and back muscle activation

Result Category 

Muscle activation

Dosage/Description of Intervention

Participant sat on a simulator for equine movement with machine vibrating 60 times per minute